The concept is this. Start up countries who are without the legacies of old, outdated and disproportionate government policy and taxation historically have far better shared economic wealth amongst it's residents. Sea Steading could provide people with the opportunity to start there own offshore nation on a vast surface area that is largely unclaimed by any current government. If you own land and don't agree with your governments policies you can detach your floating houseboat, sail off and join to another nation that you share common values with. There are innovative ideas for sustainable living too, agricultural water scientist Ricardo Radulovich has developed a brilliant solution to offshore food produce by harvesting algae farms to grow sea crops. In order for algae to thrive it requires Carbon Monoxide so whilst it harvests crops it also extracts greenhouse emisssions from the atmosphere to create an unbroken food cycle.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (Otec) is another proposed idea for Sea Steading that effectively uses the ocean as a giant solar panel. One of the founding partners in Sea Steading is Joe Quirk, his argument is if we diverted funding from space exploration into Sea exploration that by 2050 where the estimated population will be at 10 billion we have a chance at creating fully sustainable human civilisation. Check out the Sea Steading website for further reading.